The problem is to utilize millions of tons, and we may safely say billions of tons, of now worthless iron-bearing rock and to produce from it 10,000,000 to 20,000,000 tons per year of high-grade ore carrying 60 per cent, iron or higher; to take the lean material as found in nature, varying widely in iron content, and bring it up to a uniform standard of shipping ore. At present these ores are mined carrying from 25 to 50 per cent, iron, and the shipping product is brought up to 60 or 65 per cent. Fe. If future economies of operation make it possible to extend this process so that 15 per cent, iron in the crude ore can be treated as a commercial success, the additional tonnage available will be enormous. A 15 per cent. Fe crude ore raised to 60 per cent. Fe concentrate with 5 per cent.